· Josiah Wilson Hawkins was born Jan 1815, married 1835 (age 20), baptized 1 Jan 1835 (age 20), died 9 Mar 1889 (age 74), Marsh Center, ID.
· Pernecia Jane Lee Adair Hawkins was born 9 Feb 1819, married 1835 (age 16), baptized 1835? (age 16), died 12 Dec 1840 (age 21), Clinton County, IL.
The father of Josiah Wilson Hawkins is G7 William Carroll Hawkins (his grandson was named after him), born in North Carolina, died in Missouri. His father is G8 James Hawkins 1764-1822, born in Baltimore, Md, died in Overton, TN. James was a 5th generation American whose family had been in Baltimore since G12 Richard Hawkins 1612-1667 was born there, although his G13 parents, Sir Richard Hawkins and Dame Judith Hele returned to England where they died in Devonshire. G14 Sir John Hawkyns 1532-1595 has a story:
A Brief Biography of Admiral Sir John Hawkyns
Admiral Sir John Hawkins (also spelled as Hawkyns) (1532 – 12 November 1595) was an English shipbuilder, naval administrator and commander, merchant, navigator, and slave trader. As treasurer (1577) and controller (1589) of the Royal Navy, he rebuilt older ships and helped design the faster ships that withstood the Spanish Armada in 1588. He later devised the naval blockade to intercept Spanish treasure ships. One of the foremost seamen of 16th-century England, he was the chief architect of the Elizabethan navy. In the battle in which the Spanish Armada was defeated in 1588, Hawkins served as a vice admiral. He was knighted for gallantry.
John Hawkins was born in Plymouth. William, John's father, was a confidant of Henry VIII of England and one of England's principal sea captains, having sailed to the New World ca. 1527. Sir Francis Drake, John's second cousin, helped him in his second voyage.
The first Englishman recorded to have taken slaves from Africa was John Lok, a London trader who, in 1555, brought five slaves from Guinea. A second London trader taking slaves at that time was William Towerson whose fleet sailed into Plymouth following his 1569 voyage to Africa and from Plymouth on his 1557 voyage. Despite the exploits of Lok and Towerson, John Hawkins of Plymouth is often considered to be the pioneer of the British slave trade, because he was the first to run the Triangular Trade, making a profit at every stop.
First voyages (1555–1563)
John Hawkins formed a syndicate of wealthy merchants to invest in trade, including that of slaves. In 1555, he set sail with three ships for the Caribbean via Sierra Leone. They hijacked a Portuguese slave ship and traded the 301 slaves in the Caribbean. Despite having two ships seized by the Spanish authorities, he sold the slaves in Santo Domingo and thus augmented the profit made by his London investors. His voyage caused the Spanish to ban all English ships from trading in their West Indies colonies.
Second voyages (1564–1565)
In 1564, Queen Elizabeth I partnered with him by renting him the huge old 700-ton ship Jesus of Lubeck, on which he set forth on a more extensive voyage, along with three small ships. Hawkins sailed to Borburata in Venezuelan coast, privateering along the way. By the time he reached Borburata, he had captured around 400 Africans. Diego Ruiz de Vallejo, public accountant, allowed him to trade slaves on the condition he pay only 7.5% of the Almojarifazgo tax. Alonzo Bernaldez, Borburata governor, submitted a report in which it was recorded as a legitimate transaction. After Hawkins routed all Venezuelan ports and Rio de la Hacha yielding advantageous returns, he was awarded a certificate of good behavior. The ample extended certificate is restated as follows:
Hernando de Heredia, Rio de la Hacha public notary and councilman hereby stated: During the course of the first 19 days of May, Sir Juan Haquines, commander of the English fleet stationed in Rio de la Hacha, carried out commercial operations with all residents by trading slaves and goods...
A commercial license was extended to him on May 21, 1565 by honorable sirs Rodrigo Caso, city regular mayor, Hernando Castilla, Miguel de Castellanos, treasurer, Lazaro de Vallejo Alderete, quartermaster, Baltasar de Castellanos and Domingo Felix, aldermen. During the same year, Audience of Santo Domingo initiated investigations leading to know about the irregular activities performed by Rio de la Hacha senior officials who were involved in a deal with John Hawkins. Castellanos, the treasurer, was accused of having a fraudulent deal regarding the slave trade. It was the third time the English filibuster roamed about the area accomplishing large commercial operations among which the slave trade was significant. This fact was not overlooked by Santo Domingo Audience civil servants in connection to his visits to Venezuelan ports: In the year 65 [...] recorded in 1567 [...] there was such a coaster named Juan de Aquines, Englishman [...] with enough goods and 300 to 400 slaves product of his raids in Guinea territory [...] In the Province of Venezuela quite a few slaves and merchandise were rescued from this Englisman and others such as Frenchmen and Portuguese who were accustomed to this kind of activities... . After Borburata, Hawkins sailed to Rio de la Hacha. The officials tried to prevent Hawkins from selling the slaves by imposing taxes. Captain Hawkins refused to pay the taxes and threatened to burn the towns. After selling his slaves, Captain Hawkins sailed to a French colony in Florida for a respite. Captain Hawkins returned to England in September 1566, his expedition a total success as his financiers made a 60% profit.
Third voyage (1567–1569)
His third voyage began in 1567. Hawkins obtained many more slaves, and also augmented his cargo by capturing the Portuguese slave ship Madre de Deus (Mother of God) and its human cargo. He took about 400 slaves across the Atlantic on the third trip to merchandise in Dominica, Margarita Island and Borburata. At San Juan de Ulúa (in modern Vera Cruz) he was chanced upon by a strong Spanish force that was bringing, by a royal edict issued on 16 June 1567 by King Philip II of Spain, an investigative commission consisting of Licenciado Gaspar de Jarava, Licenciado Alonso Munoz, and Doctor Luis Carrillo to find out about the insistent rumours alleging some sort of move towards Mexican independence from the Spanish Crown by the Spanish Viceroy of Mexico Gaston de Peralta, 3rd Marquis of Falces, and his half-brothers Martin Cortés I "El Mestizo", Martin Cortés y Zuniga (also known as Martin Cortés II and Martin Cortés, 2nd Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca) and Luis Cortés y Hermosillo. De Jarava and Muñoz were from the Council of the Indies, while Carrillo was an official at the Court. The General Commander of the Fleet was the newly appointed governor of Cuba Pedro Menéndez de Avilés (founder of the City of San Agustin, Florida), assisted by the capable seafarer Sancho Pardo Donlebún, who was later to be a powerful adversary of both Hawkins and Drake.
In the ensuing Battle of San Juan de Ulúa only two of the English ships escaped destruction, and Hawkins' voyage home was a miserable one. That of Hawkins' gunner, Job Hartop, was equally so and took many years.
Although his first three voyages were semi-piratical enterprises, Queen Elizabeth I was in need of money and saw pirates as fighting her battles at their own cost and risk.
Hawkins would write about the details of his third voyage in An Alliance to Raid for Slaves. Specifically he comments on how trading and raiding were closely related in the English slave trade, and how European success in the slave trade directly depended on African allies who were willing to cooperate. He also comments on the level of violence he and his men used and encouraged in order to secure his captives. The title makes clear the basis of his methodology.
As part of the English government's web of counter-espionage, Hawkins pretended to be part of the Ridolfi Plot to betray Queen Elizabeth in 1571. By gaining the confidence of Spain's ambassador to England, he learned the details of the conspiracy, and notified the government so to arrest the plotters. He offered his services to the Spanish, in order to obtain the release of prisoners of war, and to discover plans for the proposed Spanish invasion of England.
His help in foiling the plot was rewarded, and in 1571 Hawkins entered Parliament as MP for Plymouth. He became Treasurer of the Royal Navy on 1 January 1578, following the death of his predecessor Benjamin Gonson (who was also his father-in-law, Hawkins having married Katherine Gonson in 1567). Hawkins' financial reforms of the Navy upset many who had vested interests, and in 1582 his rival Sir William Wynter accused him of administrative malfeasance, instigating a royal commission on fraud against him. The commission, under William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, Francis Walsingham, and Drake, concluded that there was no undue corruption, and that the Queen's Navy was in first-rate condition.
Hawkins was determined that his navy, as well as having the best fleet of ships in the world, would also have the best quality of seamen, and so petitioned and won a pay increase for sailors, arguing that a smaller number of well-motivated and better-paid men would be more effective than a larger group of uninterested men. Hawkins made important improvements in ship construction and rigging; he is less well known for his inventiveness as a shipwright, but it was his idea to add to the caulker's work by the finishing touch of sheathing the underside of his ships with a skin of nailed elm planks sealed with a combination of pitch and hair smeared over the bottom timbers, as a protection against the worms which would attack a ship in tropical seas. Hawkins also introduced detachable topmasts that could be hoisted and used in good weather and stowed in heavy seas. Masts were stepped further forward, and sails were cut flatter. His ships were "race-built", being longer and with forecastle and aftcastle (or poop) greatly reduced in size.
The Spanish Armada
John Hawkins' innovative measures made the new English ships fast and highly manoeuvrable. In 1588 they were tested against the Spanish Armada. Hawkins was the Rear Admiral, one of three main commanders of the English fleet against the Armada, alongside Francis Drake and Martin Frobisher. Hawkins’ flagship was Victory. It is possible that Hawkins organised the fire-ship attacks at Calais. For his role in the great sea battle, Hawkins was knighted.
After the defeat of the Armada, Hawkins urged the seizure of Phillip II's colonial treasure, in order to stop Spain re-arming. In 1589, Hawkins sailed with former apprentice Francis Drake in a massive military operation (the Drake-Norris Expedition) with one of its goals being to try to intercept the Spanish treasure fleet. The voyage failed, but the idea led many other English pirates to make similar attempts.
In 1590 Drake and Hawkins founded a charity for the relief of sick and elderly mariners. This was followed by a hospital in 1592 and another in 1594, the Hospital of Sir John Hawkins, Knight, in Chatham. The charity continues today and the terms of the Elizabethan charter have been broadened. Almshouse accommodation in High Street Chatham on the border with Rochester may be granted by the Governors to a needy or disabled man or woman who has served in the Royal Navy, Royal Marines, WRNS, Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing Service, or who has been employed in the Royal Dockyards in the construction, repair, maintenance or re-fitting of RN vessels; and under the broadening of the charter those who served in the Merchant Navy, the Army, the Royal Air Force or who saw active service in the Reserve Forces may apply. If there is no such applicant the spouses or dependents of those named above may also be considered. Details from The Deputy Governor, 6 A High Street, Chatham, Kent, ME4 4EP.
Potatoes, tobacco and sharks
Potatoes were first imported to the British Isles (probably to Ireland) in either 1563 or 1565 (sources differ) by Mr Hawkins.
Some scholars suggest that it was Sir John Hawkins who introduced tobacco into Britain. Some accounts say this was in 1569, others in 1564. The latter is more likely, since he mentions "tobacco" in his journals of the second voyage.
The Oxford English Dictionary notes that the word shark appears to have been introduced by Hawkins' sailors, who brought one back and exhibited it in London in 1569. It has recently been suggested that the derivation is from xoc, the word for "fish" in a Mayan language spoken in Yucatán.
In 1595 he accompanied his second cousin Sir Francis Drake, on a treasure-hunting voyage to the West Indies, involving two unsuccessful attacks on San Juan in Puerto Rico. During the voyage they both fell sick. Hawkins died at sea off Puerto Rico. Drake succumbed to disease, most likely dysentery, on 27 January, and was buried at sea somewhere off the coast of Porto Belo. Hawkins was succeeded by his son Sir Richard Hawkins.
Hawkins came to the public's attention again in June 2006, almost four and a half centuries after his death, when his descendant Andrew Hawkins publicly apologized for his ancestor's actions in the slave trade.
1. ^ Saignes, Miguel (1967). Vida de los esclavos negros en Venezuela. Hesperides. ISBN 0 Check |isbn= value (help). p. 60
2. ^ Herman, Arthur (2004). To Rule the Waves: How the British Navy Shaped the Modern World. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-340-73419-1. p.103
3. ^ Breaking the Maya Code: Revised Edition by Michael D. Coe, 1999
4. ^ "The Times | UK News, World News and Opinion". Timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-17. A WW2 ship called 'Sir John Hawkins' featured in the film 'Dunkirk' (1958) This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Hazlewood, Nick. The Queen's Slave Trader: John Hawkyns, Elizabeth I, and the Trafficking in Human Souls. HarperCollins Books, New York, 2004. ISBN 0-06-621089-5.
Walling, R.A.J. A Sea-Dog of Devon: a Life of Sir John Hawkins. 1907.
WILLIAMSON, James. Hawkins of Plymouth: a new History of Sir John Hawkins. 1969.
DAVIS, Bertram. Proof of Eminence : The Life of Sir John Hawkins. Indiana University Press. 1973
UNWIN, Rayner. The Defeat of John Hawkins: A Biography of His Third Slaving Voyage. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1960; New York: Macmillan, 1960.
Harry KELSEY. Sir John Hawkins, Queen Elizabeth´s Slave Trader, Yale University Press, 384 pages, (April 2003), ISBN 978-0-300-09663-7
The African slave trade and its suppression: a classified and annotated bibliography of Books, Pamphlets and Periodical Articles, annotated by Peter C. HOGG, Frank Cass and Co. Ltd. Abingdon, Oxon, England and Frank Cass and Co. Ltd. New York (1973), ISBN 0 7146 2775 5 . Transferred to Digital Printing 2006.
G15 Captain William Amadas Hawkyns 1495-1553/4 has a story:
Captain William Hawkins, the First of This Name
William was probably born about 1495. He became a merchant of Plymouth and the customs ledgers of the last years of Henry VIII show him exporting cloth and tin to Europe and importing wines from Bordeaux, Portugal and Spain, olive oil, sugar, salt and pepper, as well as ‘Newland fish’ and other commodities. He was responsible for establishing English trade with the South Seas. This was clearly profitable and he became Lord of the Manor of Sutton Valletort. His trading activities led him into politics and he was appointed Receiver, or Treasurer to the Corporation of Plymouth in 1524-5, as well as Collector of the subsidy for the county of Devon. William was already a person of some importance before he undertook three famous voyages to Brazil. The following is an extract from ‘The Tudor Venturers’ by Richard Hakluyt, a contemporary of Sir Francis Drake and William Shakespeare:
"WILLIAM HAWKINS REACHES BRAZIL:
The Portuguese discovered Brazil in 1500, the only part of South America not claimed by the Spaniards; they established a few settlements along the coast and claimed a monopoly of trade, here and also on the Guinea coast, which William Hawkins visited en route. There was a valuable trade in brazil wood, which was used in dyeing and which gave its name to the country. Hawkins was among the interlopers who disputed the monopoly, but if he had to fight the Portuguese his son John Hawkins was too cautious to say so, or Hakluyt was too cautious to record it.
A brief relation of two sundry voyages made by the Worshipful Master William Hawkins of Plymouth, father to Sir John Hawkins, Knight, late treasurer of Her Majesty's Navy, in the years 1530 and 1532.
"Old Master William Hawkins of Plymouth, a man for his wisdom, valour, experience and skill in sea causes much esteemed, and beloved of King Henry VIII, and being one of the principal sea captains in the West parts of England in his time, not contented with the short voyages commonly then made only to the known coasts of Europe, armed out a tall and goodly ship of his own of the burden of 250 tons, called the Paul of Plymouth, wherewith he made three long and famous voyages unto the coast of Brazil, a thing in those days very rare, especially to our nation. In the course of which voyages he touched at the River of Sestos upon the coast of Guinea, where he trafficked with the negros and took of them elephants' teeth and other commodities which the place yieldeth. And so arriving on the coast of Brazil, he used there such discretion and behaved himself so wisely with those savage people that he grew into great familiarity and friendship with them. Insomuch that in his second voyage one of the savage kings of the country of Brazil was contented to take ship with him, and to be transported hither into England: whereunto Master Hawkins agreed, leaving behind in the country as a pledge for his safety and return again one Martin Cockeram of Plymouth. This Brazilian King, being arrived, was brought up to London and presented to King Henry VIII, lying as then at Whitehall: at the sight of whom the King and all the nobility did not a little marvel, and not without cause; for in his cheeks were holes made according to their savage manner, and therein small bones were planted standing an inch out from the said holes, which in his own country was reputed for a great bravery. He had also another hole in his nether lip wherein was set a precious stone about the bigness of a pea. All his apparel, behaviour and gesture were very strange to the beholders.
Having remained here the space almost of a whole year, and the King with his sight fully satisfied, Master Hawkins, according to his promise and appointment, purposed to convey him again into his country: but it fell out in the way that by change of air and alteration of diet the said savage King died at sea, which was feared would turn to the loss of the life of Martin Cockeram, his pledge. Nevertheless the savages, being fully persuaded of the honest dealing of our men with their Prince, restored again the said pledge without any harm to him or any man of the company: which pledge of theirs they brought home again into England, with their ship freighted and furnished with the commodities of the country. Which Martin Cockeram, by the witness of Sir John Hawkins, being an officer in the town of Plymouth, was living within these few years."
William married Joan Trelawny of the famed Cornish family and they had two children: William, born about 1519 and John, 1532.
He became Mayor of Plymouth in 1532. In 1544 he was Deputy Mayor and England was at war with France when, with others, he received a commission from Henry VIII to annoy the King’s enemies with 4, 6 or 8 barks sailing at their own cost. This commission marks the entry of the Hawkins family into the business of privateering. The privateers, or men-of-war as they were known at the time, inflicted great damage on French commerce at great profit to themselves. One of William’s ships took a Spanish vessel, whose cargo he asserted was French, falsely represented as Spanish. A French invasion seemed imminent and it was uncertain whether Spain would back France. It was therefore expedient to keep the Spanish Emperor happy and Hawkins was imprisoned until he should have made restitution to the owner of the captured ship. In fact it transpired that the owner was a Spaniard who, some years earlier, had become a naturalized Frenchman so William was in the right. In any event it was not discreditable for a public figure to go to prison in the 16th century and it did not lower him in the estimation of those who sent him there.
The war ended in 1546 and King Henry died the following February. In 1549, William improved the fortifications of Plymouth and the castle held out for the Government against the rebels of the Prayer Book Rebellion (Cranmer’s new prayer book). Mary Tudor became Queen in 1553 when Hawkins was again Member of Parliament for Plymouth. It was his last public service and he died in 1553 or 1554. It is not known whether he died at home, or in London.
(This story is from the site "Devon Heritage - The Hawkins Family of Plymouth, by Geoff Ledden")
Until we have source documents to prove ancestry, we depend on whatever we have collectively inherited from the “work” of others gone before to show extended ancestry.
Ancestor King Robert the Bruce
The mother of G8 James Hawkins 1764-1822 is Elizabeth Henley 1724-1808, born in Maryland, married 1750 in Baltimore, Maryland Augustine Frederic Hawkins, born 1721 in Maryland. She died in Hawkins, Tennessee; he died in Jackson, Tennessee. Her father is G10 John Henley 1706-1770, born in Maryland, died in Hawkins, Tennessee. His mother is Anne Armstrong 1669-1711, born and died in Maryland. Her father is Edward Armstrong 1630-1698, born in Plymouth, MA, died in Maryland. His father is G13 Gregory Armstrong 1582-1650, who immigrated from Scotland to Plymouth, Massachusetts. His father is Christopher or John’s Christie Armstrong, Lord of Giltknock Hall (Gilnockie) 1526-1606. His mother is Lady Elizabeth Graham 1480. Her father is G16 Sir William Graham, First Earl of Montrose 1464-1513. His father is Henry Graham 1420. His mother is “Princess” Mary Stewart 1368-1458. Her father is King Robert Stewart 1337-1406. His father is Robert (II King) Stewart 1316-1389. His mother is Marjorie Bruce 1296-1316. Her father is G22 King Robert the Bruce 1274-1329, made famous with William Wallace in Braveheart. His father is Lord Robert de Bruce 1243-1304, depicted with leprosy in the movie. We have his paternal ancestry back another five generations to G28 First Lord of Annandale Robert de Brus who is EOL.
From Wikipedia: Robert I de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale (c. 1078 – 1138) was an early 12th century Norman baron and knight, the first of the Bruce dynasty of Scotland and England. A monastic patron, he is remembered as the founder of Gisborough Priory in Yorkshire, in present day Redcar and Cleveland, in 1119.
Nothing is known of Robert's father, except that he was a landowner in Normandy. An early modern historiographical tradition that he was the son of a Norman noble named Robert I le Brus or de Brus who came to England with William the Conqueror in 1066 and died ca. 1094 has been found to be without basis.
Modern historians contend that Robert may have come from Brix, Manche, near Cherbourg in the Cotentin Peninsula, and came to Britain after King Henry I of England's conquest of Normandy (i.e.: at the same time as Alan fitz Flaad, ancestor of the Stuart Royal Family). David fitz Malcolm (after 1124 King David I of Scotland), was present in France with King Henry and was granted much of the Cotentin Peninsula. It is suggested that Robert de Brus's presences and absences at Henry's court coincide with David's.
Robert de Brus went to Scotland, where the new King, David, made him Lord of Annandale in 1124, although there is scant evidence that this Robert took up residence on his Scottish estates.
After the death of King Henry, David turned against Henry's successor, King Stephen. As a result Robert de Brus and King David parted company, with Robert bitterly renouncing his homage to David before taking the English side at the Battle of the Standard.
Ancestor William “the Conquerer” King of England, from Normandy France
It cannot be correct with all the misinformation and obvious errors, but someone wanted to show ancestral connections to famous people. Through Bethany Sutherland (1770-1840), wife of James Hawkins, then Mary Owen, Mildred Grant, Isabella Richardson, Rebecca, John Howard, Jane Monson, Jane Dighton, the Wallop line for several gens to Alice Hussey, more gens back to Hawise Somerie, and more still to Norman William.
Ancestor Alfred “the Great” King of England
G10 John Henley 1706-1770, born in Maryland, died in Hawkins, Tennessee, married (age 14?) abt 1720 in Maryland Mary M. Elliot 1701-1742, born Maryland, died Maryland. She is shown to be the daughter of William Ellt and Eleanor Harris. Eleanor Harris 1691-1755 descended from G15 Richard James abt 1615 who immigrated from England. He descended from G20 John Hester abt 1475 of Oxfordshire, England and G20 Katharine Umfrauill abt 1477 of Buckinghamshire, England. She descended from G30 Thomas de Furnivalle 1109 and Bertha Ferrers 1200. She descended G40 Herlevin de Conteville 985 of France who descended from G45 Alfred the Great King of England 849-899 who descended from a series of kings of Wessex back to G57 Cedric abt 493.
Alfred the Great was King of Wessex from 871 to 899. Alfred successfully defended his kingdom against the Viking attempt at conquest, and by the time of his death had become the dominant ruler in England. Alfred’s father immigrated from Ancient Saxony, Northern Germany to become king of Wessex. His paternal ancestors were kings in Saxony, Germany back to G64 King Frithogar of Saxony 299. His paternal ancestors were Scandinavians to G67 Sigge “Odin” Fridulfsson “Moutan Woden” born abt 215 in Asgard, Hordeland, Norway. His father and grandfather G69 Prince Freothalaf were also born in Asgard, Hordeland, Norway, but G70 and EOL King Fredulf is shown as having been born in Turkey.
Alfred the Great’s grandson, G43 Arnold I Count of Flanders married Alix de Vermandois 914-960. Her direct paternal ancestors go to G49 Charlemange Emporer of the West (King of France) 742-814 born and died in Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia. One of his ancestral lines is shown to go back to G72 Filogud King of the Baltic Goths of Verona, Italy.
Ancestors back to early Wales and Scotland
Through Bethany Sutherland (1770-1840), wife of James Hawkins, we track back 70 generations through Wales then Scotland in 250 AD.
Ancestors in Greek Mythology
Through Bethany Sutherland (1770-1840), wife of James Hawkins, we track back through England to France to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and eventually to ancient Troy, Turkey, some 75 generations back, where we encounter ancestors known only in Greek Mythology, including Laomedon, King of Troy, and his father, Ilus, King of Troy, 1310 BC, who on our current records is EOL. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ilus has more commentary showing Ilus as son of Tros, grandson of Erichthonius, great grandson of Dardanus, descended from Zeus/Jupiter and Electra.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_mythology - Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. It was a part of the religion in ancient Greece. Modern scholars refer to and study the myths in an attempt to throw light on the religious and political institutions of Ancient Greece and its civilization, and to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself.
Greek mythology is explicitly embodied in a large collection of narratives, and implicitly in Greek representational arts, such as vase-paintings and votive gifts. Greek myth attempts to explain the origins of the world, and details the lives and adventures of a wide variety of gods, goddesses, heroes, heroines and mythological creatures. These accounts initially were disseminated in an oral-poetic tradition; today the Greek myths are known primarily from Greek literature.
The oldest known Greek literary sources, Homer's epic poems Iliad and Odyssey, focus on the Trojan War and its aftermath. Two poems by Homer's near contemporary Hesiod, the Theogony and the Works and Days, contain accounts of the genesis of the world, the succession of divine rulers, the succession of human ages, the origin of human woes, and the origin of sacrificial practices. Myths are also preserved in the Homeric Hymns, in fragments of epic poems of the Epic Cycle, in lyric poems, in the works of the tragedians of the fifth century BC, in writings of scholars and poets of the Hellenistic Age, and in texts from the time of the Roman Empire by writers such as Plutarch and Pausanias.
Archaeological findings provide a principal source of detail about Greek mythology, with gods and heroes featured prominently in the decoration of many artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles. In the succeeding Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods, Homeric and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an extensive influence on the culture, arts, and literature of Western civilization and remains part of Western heritage and language. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes.
Ancestors Adam and Eve
G8 Bethany Sutherland, daughter of Mary Owen, d of Mildred Grant, d of Isabella Richardson, d of Rebecca Howard, d of G13 John Howard, direct back to G22 John Howard 1310 Norfolk, England, son of Alice Fitton, gd of G25 Margaret Dutton 1237, back to G30 Hugh Dutton 1096 Cheshire, England, son of Odard Lord of Dutton of Normandy, France, to G35 Richard The Fearless of Normandy 996, son of William Longsword, son of rolf rognavalsson 860 Norway, to G45 Ingvar The Tall Einsteinsson 546 Sweden, grandson of Yrsa Helgadatter Queen of Denmark 565, to G55 Skjold 237 AD of Denmark, wife of Gefion Queen of the Danes, d of Odin Woden Wouten 213 AD of Asgard or East Europe, son of Frithiwald Bor 190 AD of Åsgård, Schads, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, East Europe, son of Frealaf, of Frithuwulf , of Fingod Wulf, of Jat, of Taetwa, son of King Sceldwaea in Denmark, son of Itermod, son of Huala, son of Bedwig of Sceaf, son of Seskef (or Danus I) Odan, son of Magi (Maji) Modasson, son of Moda (mode) Vingenersson, son of G70 Vingener of Troy (Northern Turkey) 320 BC, son of Vingithor of Troy 350 BC, son of Einridi of Troy, son of Loridi of Troy, son of Tror (Thor) King of Thrace, son of Memnon of Troy, son of Tithonus of Troy 1260 BC, son of Laomedon King of Troy 1235 BC, son of G78 IIlus of Troy 1281 BC, son of Tros of Acadia, son of Erichonius of Acadia 1387 BC, son of Dara (Daranus) of Acadia 1414 BC, of Zerah, of G83 Judah King of Goshen and Tamar, of Jacob ben Isaac (Israel) and Leah, of Isaac and Rebecca, of G86 Abraham and Sarah, to G95 Shem, G96 Noah, G98 Enoch, G103 Seth, and G104 Adam and Eve.
William Carroll and Jane Wilson Hawkins
William Carroll Hawkins was born 1 Jan 1794 in Rutherford County, NC, son of James Hawkins, mother unknown. Jane Wilson was born 31 Jul 1797, in Lexington, KY, daughter of Josiah Wilson and Margaret Crow. They married 24 Feb 1814 in Adair County, KY when he was 20 and she was 16. They had 11 children, including their firstborn, Josiah Wilson Hawkins, born 5 Jan 1815. He died 26 Nov 1861 in Carter County, MO, at the age of 67. She died on her birthday 31 Jul 1884, in Shannon County, MO, at the age of 87. They were baptized by proxy 20 Mar 1906 and endowed 21 Mar 1906, and sealed to spouse on 21 Mar 1908.
John and Polly Bearden Adair or Lee
John Adair or Lee was born 1796 in Caldwell County, KY, parents unknown. Polly Bearnden was born 1801 in Caldwell County, KY, daughter of William Bearden and Starnes. They were married 2 Mar 1818 when he was 21 or 22 and she was 16 or 17. They had 11 children, including their firstborn, Pernecia Lee (Adair) born 9 Feb 1819.
He died Nov 1845 at the age of 49. She died Apr 1857 at the age of 56. They were baptized by proxy 27 Mar 1906 and endowed 29 Mar 1906, and sealed to spouse 13 Apr 1906.
Josiah Wilson Hawkins and Pernecia Lee (Adair)
Josiah is the first of my “first convert” ancestors to join the Church as a single adult, but he was married before the end of the year, eleven months later.
Josiah Wilson Hawkins, son and oldest child of eleven of William Carroll Hawkins (who left North Carolina, went to Kentucky where he married Jane Wilson, then died in Missouri) and Jane Wilson (born in Kentucky, died in Missouri), was the born 5 Jan 1815, in Adair County, Kentucky. Pernecia Lee (Adair), daughter and oldest child of eleven of John Adair or Lee (born in Kentucky, died in Missouri) and Polly Bearden (born in Kentucky, died in Missouri).
Josiah was baptized on New Year’s Day, 1 Jan 1835, at the age of 19, just four days before turning 20. Josiah and Pernecia were married 3 Dec 1835 in Clinton County, Illinois, when Josiah was 20 and Pernecia was 16. After five years of marriage, Pernecia died 12 Dec 1840 in Clinton County, Illinois, after giving birth to their third child, Eliza Jan Hawkins, who died two days earlier 10 Dec 1840. Polly Ann Matilda, born 1838, died in 1843, age 4 or 5. Only their first child, William Carroll Hawkins, born 4 Nov 1836, in Hanover, Clinton, Illinois, survived, making it with his father to Utah and then Idaho, marrying Nancy Ann Brown (?) and Henrietta Catharina Clementina Germer 9 Feb 1859, at the age of 23, having eight children with her, and finally passing away at the age of 69 in Pocatello, ID.
Josiah was endowed 10 Dec 1864 at the age of 49. He died 9 Mar 1889, in March Center, Bannock, ID. He was sealed by proxy to parents 5 Dec 1969 and to spouse 13 Apr 1970, in the Logan Temple. We presume that Pernecia had been baptized, before or after marrying Josiah, but I have no record of it. She was baptized and endowed by proxy on 22 Mar 1906, sealed to parents 13 Oct 1960, and sealed to spouse 13 Apr 1970.
My PAF shows a fourth child of Josiah, William Jackson Wilson, born 12 Nov 1877, in Taswell, Crawford, IN, and dying 2 May 1937 in Frenchlick, Orange, IN. This is likely an error, since Josiah would have been 62 and living in Idaho. This needs to be researched and settled.